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Department of Small Wind and Pico Hydro Energy

Department of Small Wind and Pico Hydro Energy


  • To Provide training on small/mini wind and pico hydro energy power generation technology

  • To access the different sites energy potential on mini wind turbines and micro hydro turbines

  • To popularize various models of mini wind and pico hydro energy systems with applications at various locations


Consultancy :

  • Mini wind power generation potential assessment

  • Pico hydro power generation potential assessment

  • Electrification using Solar-Wind / Solar-Pico Hydro Power Technology


Introduction of Wind energy:

Wind is a naturally occurring form of fluid-kinetic energy that is in constant motion across the earth’s surface and can be attributed to pressure differences caused by relative temperature variation.

Wind power or wind energy is the use of wind to provide the mechanical power through wind turbines to turn electric generators and traditionally to do other work, like milling or pumping. Wind power is a sustainable and renewable energy, and has a much smaller impact on the environment compared to burning fossil fuels.

A wind farm is a group of wind turbines in the same location used for production of electric power. A large wind farm may consist of several hundred individual wind turbines distributed over an extended area, but the land between the turbines may be used for agricultural or other purposes. For example, Gansu Wind Farm, the largest wind farm in the world, has several thousand turbines. A wind farm may also be located offshore.

Almost all large wind turbines have the same design — a horizontal axis wind turbine having an upwind rotor with three blades, attached to a nacelle on top of a tall tubular tower.

In a wind farm, individual turbines are interconnected with a medium voltage (often 34.5 kV) power collection system and communications network. In general, a distance of 7D (seven times the rotor diameter of the wind turbine) is set between each turbine in a fully developed wind farm. At a substation, this medium-voltage electric current is increased in voltage with a transformer for connection to the high voltage electric power transmission system.


Wind power in India

Wind power generation capacity in India has significantly increased in recent years. As of 31 October 2019 the total installed wind power capacity was 37.090 MW, the fourth largest installed wind power capacity in the worldWind power capacity is mainly spread across the South, West, North and East regions.

Wind power costs in India are decreasing rapidly. The levelised tariff of wind power reached a record low of Rs.2.43 per kWh (without any direct or indirect subsidies) during auctions for wind projects in December 2017. In December 2017, union government announced the applicable guidelines for tariff-based wind power auctions to bring more clarity and minimise the risk to the developers. Individual states like Tamilnadu (8197MW) Karnataka (4791MW), Maharastra(4784MW),Gujarath(5613MW),Rajasthan (4297MW),Madhyapradesh (2520MW) Andrapradesh (3963MW) and Kerala (53MW) has installed capacity.

Types of Wind Turbines

Wind turbines can be separated into two basic types determined by which way the turbine spins. Wind turbines that rotate around a horizontal axis are more common (like a wind mill), while vertical axis wind turbines are less frequently used (Savonius and Darrieus are the most common in the group).

Vertical Axis Wind Turbines 

Vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs), which may be as efficient as current horizontal axis systems, might be practical, simpler and significantly cheaper to build and maintain than horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWTs). They also have other inherent advantages, such as they are always facing the wind, which might make them a significant player in our quest for cheaper, cleaner renewable sources of electricity. VAWTs might even be critical in mitigating grid interconnect stability and reliability issues currently facing electricity producers and suppliers. Additionally, cheap VAWT’s may provide an alternative to the rain forest destruction for the growing of bio-fuel crops.


Vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs) in addition to being simpler and cheaper to build have the following advantages:

  • They are always facing the wind – no need for steering into the wind.

  • Have greater surface area for energy capture – can be many times greater.

  • Are more efficient in gusty winds – already facing the gust

  • Can be installed in more locations – on roofs, along highways, in parking lots.

  • Do not kill birds and wild – life – slow moving and highly visible.

  • Can be scaled more easily – from mili watts to megawatts.

  • Can be significantly less expensive to build – are inherently simpler.

  • Can have low maintenance downtime – mechanisms at or near ground level

  • Produce less noise – low speed means less noise

  • Are more esthetically pleasing – to some one.


Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines

Horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWT) have the main rotor shaft and electrical generator at the top of a tower, and may be pointed into or out of the wind. Small turbines are pointed by a simple wind vane, while large turbines generally use a wind sensor coupled with a servo motor. Most have a gearbox, which turns the slow rotation of the blades into a quicker rotation that is more suitable to drive an electrical generator.

HAWT Advantages

  • Variable blade pitch, which gives the turbine blades the optimum angle of attack. Allowing the angle of attack to be remotely adjusted gives greater control, so the turbine collects the maximum amount of wind energy for the time of day and season.

  • The tall tower base allows access to stronger wind in sites with wind shear. In some wind shear sites, every ten meters up, the wind speed can increase by 20% and the power output by 34%.

  • High efficiency, since the blades always moves perpendicularly to the wind, receiving power through the whole rotation. In contrast, all vertical axis wind turbines, and most proposed airborne wind turbine designs, involve various types of reciprocating actions, requiring airfoil surfaces to backtrack against the wind for part of the cycle. Backtracking against the wind leads to inherently lower efficiency.

Small-scale wind power

Small-scale wind power is the name given to wind generation systems with the capacity to produce up to 50 kW of electrical power. Isolated communities, that may otherwise rely on diesel generators, may use wind turbines as an alternative. Individuals may purchase these systems to reduce or eliminate their dependence on grid electric power for economic reasons, or to reduce their carbon footprint. Wind turbines have been used for household electric power generation in conjunction with battery storage over many decades in remote areas

Environmental effects

The environmental impact of wind power when compared to the environmental impacts of fossil fuels, is relatively minor. According to the IPCC, in assessments of the life-cycle global warming potential of energy sources, wind turbines have a median value of between 12 and 11 (gCO 2eq/kWh) depending on whether off- or onshore turbines are being assessed. Compared with other low carbon power sources, wind turbines have some of the lowest global warming potential per unit of electrical energy generated.

Wind Energy Business Opportunities in India

The wind energy value chain consists of a number of specific and distinct steps - from the supply of raw materials to the transmission of electricity. These steps, along with the prominent supporting products and services for each, are given below. The illustration here also provides a bird’s-eye view of the opportunities available along the entire wind energy value chain.

A trend in the wind energy industry that entrepreneurs should be aware of is the move by incumbents towards vertical integration along this value chain. And there is a reason for the vertical integration efforts. With supply chain bottlenecks a constant threat, many of the large wind firms have responded by buying out suppliers of critical components such as blades, generators, and gearboxes. By bringing suppliers in house, they could ensure they would get the products they needed on time, and at an acceptable price.


1.Power Plant Developer

  • Original Equipment Manufacturing

  • Raw Materials Production

  • Component Manufacturing

  • Trading Opportunities

  • IT, Consultancy and Resource Assessment Services

  • Feasibility Studies and Project Development

  • Geotechnical Services


  1. Support Services

  • Logistics Support for Wind Power

  • Construction Opportunities

  • Operation and Maintenance

  • Insurance Services

  • HVDC Transmission Systems

General points:

  • 2 m/s minimum is required to start rotating most small wind turbines.

  • 5 m/s is the typical cut-in speed, when a small turbine starts generating power.

  • 6–15 m/s produces maximum generation power.

  • India ranks fourth amongst the wind-energy-producing countries of the world after China, USA and Germany.

  • Estimated potential is around 49130 MW at 50 m above ground level and 102788 MW at 80 m above ground level.

  • Exhaustive wind resource assessment has been carried out in 826 stations spread over various parts of the country. As on date 244 Wind Monitoring stations have indicated wind power density 200 W/m² or more at 50 m above ground level.

  • Largest Rating of WEG installed in India

    3000 kW, Acciona Wind power India, Bengaluru

  • Maximum Installed Capacity by a WEG Supplier

    9531 MW, Suzlon Energy

Use full links for information


Small Hydro Energy

Renewable energy is green energy, environmental friendly, and they are the part of solution in energy conservation. Small hydro is also one among renewable energy sources.

India's hydroelectric power potential is estimated at 148,700 MW . In the fiscal year 2018-19, the total hydroelectric power generated in India was 45,400MW (excluding small hydro).In that 4,647MW is the total small hydro power generation in India.

Small hydropower, defined to be generated at facilities with nameplate capacities up to 25 MW, comes under the ambit of the Ministry of New and Renewable energy (MNRE).

The public sector accounts for 92.5% of India's hydroelectric power production. The National Hydroelectric Power Corporation (NHPC), Northeast Electric Power Company (NEEPCO), Satluj Jal Vidyut Nigam (SJVNL), THDC, and NTPC-Hydro are some of the public sector companies producing hydroelectric power in India.

Small hydro power projects are further classified as


Station Capacity in kW

Micro Hydro

Up to 100

Mini Hydro

101 to 2000

Small Hydro

2001 to 25000

An estimated potential of about 20,000 MW of small hydro power projects exists in India.

Small Hydro Potential in Karnataka

Estimated potential - 3,500 MW

Commissioned as on date -1256 MW

Micro hydro power is the small-scale harnessing of energy from falling water. Hydraulic power can be captured wherever a flow of water falls. The vertical fall of water, known as the head, is essential for hydropower generation (fast-flowing water on its own does not contain sufficient energy for useful power production). Hence, two quantities are required for production of hydropower: a) Flow Rate (volume,Q) of water and b) Head (H). These installations can provide power to an isolated home or small community, or are sometimes connected to electric power networks. There are many of these installations around the world, particularly in developing nations as they can provide an economical source of energy without purchase of fuel. Micro hydro systems complement photovoltaic solar energy systems, because in many areas, water flow, and thus available hydro power, is highest in the winter when solar energy is at a minimum

For Micro Hydro systems, this translates into two categories of turbines:


For high head and low flow volume sites, impulse turbines are the most efficient choice. The power produced by an impulse turbine comes entirely from the momentum of the water hitting the turbine runners. This water creates a direct push or ‘impulse’ on the blades, and thus such turbines are called ‘impulse turbines’.


For low head and high flow volume sites, a reaction turbine is the best choice. The reaction turbine, as the name implies, is turned by reactive force rather than a direct push or impulse. The turbine blades turn in reaction to the pressure of the water falling on them. Reaction turbines can operate on heads as low as 2 feet, but require much higher flow rates than an impulse turbine.


Power Potential is the product of available head and quantity of water at any point of time

P = 9.81Â x Q x h x n

P = Power in kW

Q = discharge in cum. m. per sec.

H = Net head in meters

n = overall unit efficiency (0.85to 0.9)


Advantages of SHP

1)    SHP s are encouraged because they are Eco friendly.

2)    SHPs are locally placed hence employment potential for local people.

3)     Decentralised power. (Minimises the T&D losses.)

4)     Development of infrastructure in rural area.

5)     No rehabilitation and displacement.

6)     It is green power.

7)     Nation gets the Carbon credit.

8)     By use of small hydro the water resources in major Reservoirs are conserved.

9)     Minimum submergence.

10)   Flora and Fauna of the nature is not disturbed.


Project development and costing

As mentioned earlier it is very important to carryout site assessment to estimate the power availability at the site. After power potential assessment plan can be made to draw the layout of the project based on the load requirement. Cost of the project depends on the following factors: 1.Avialble power potential- Head and Flow rate of water 2.Power demand(Requirement).3. Geological features, 4.Equipments (turbines, generators and cable and others), 5. civil engineering works and continuity of water flow.


The operation and maintenance cost including repairs and insurance can range from 1.5

to 5 percent of investment costs.

Typical cost per MW scale project is around Rs.6.5 crore.

However it is possible to harness power from low potential site to generate electricity if it is needed.


Example: Consider a site which has water stream which runs about 10 months/year on an average. With head of 20ft and flow rate with 2.4ft3/sec, which could give an estimate of about 2kW power generation. For such a low head cross flow/propeller  turbine is the suitable one.



Estimated  cost for 1kW is Rs. 1,00,000/-

Estimated  cost for  2kW is Rs. 1,50,000/-

Estimated  cost for  3kW is Rs. 1,75,000/-

Estimated  cost for  5kW is Rs. 2,50,000/-


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Last Updated: 10-08-2021 04:39 PM Updated By: Mahantesh Kumbar Approver

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